19世纪美国浪漫主义 · 惠特曼

英美文学纯干货2018-05-15 14:14:10

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重点把握


惠特曼(Walt Whitman)多写长诗,不受韵律限制,因此其特点即在于开创美国自由诗(个人翻译)free verse先河。


注意:要与blank verse区分开来。blank verse是有格律的(metrical units),只是句与句的末尾不押尾韵。常为unrhymed iambic pentameter lines.而free verse则不受任何韵律限制,很随性,想怎么写就怎么写。长诗、长句,无韵律,气势磅礴,惠特曼的诗歌很好辨认。


美国文学在现代主义时期free verse的作家还有: Carl Sandburg (写Chicago),Hart Crane(写美国大桥)。当然还有“垮掉的一代”(The Beat Generation)写《嚎叫》(Howl)的Allen Ginsberg。大家可以集中阅读这几位诗人的诗歌,对其风格进行整体及个别把握。


来个问题:何以说,惠特曼是美国浪漫主义代表人物之一?


(可以点英国浪漫主义文学大观 和美国浪漫主义文学大观查看浪漫主义主要特征。)惠特曼基本具有浪漫主义代表性的所有特质。如从自然界的一片小草就能写出一整部《草叶集》(Leaves of Grass),表达自身感情(很多方面,爱自然,爱自我,甚至包括朦胧的同性恋等),歌唱自我(Song of Myself)、个人的力量,甚至心系整个美国,呼吁美国文学的创新,及号召写出美国特色。




心目中的美国诗人


文学大咖这种生物一定总是心系天下、家国的。惠特曼在《草叶集》前言部分探讨了美国诗人应该具备的特质(爱默生也曾经探讨过,可见一脉相承)。有以下几点,也是惠特曼身体力行的。


1. 正如美国大熔炉一般,美国诗人对待传统的态度不该是一味批判,而应扬弃,将past beliefs ...incorporate into newer ones.


2. 歌颂美国:美国人民(惠特曼明显做到了,如“I Hear America Singing”),各种职业,美国地理,甚至是美国的工业、科技。


3. 诗人要开创诗歌的新形式( forms)和新主题(subjects)。即不受韵律所限制,表达真实情感,刻画真实事物。




Song of Myself


单是《自我之歌》这部分,就包含了标好序号的52个小部分。我只粗略读了其中的前20节,挑一些觉得可以代表惠特曼思想的部分和大家分享。

PS我并没有看过专门讲解惠特曼的文章,这里不保证我解读的正确性哈,只是个人读后感而已。



1

I celebrate myself, and sing myself,

And what I assume you shall assume,

For every atom belonging to me as good belongs to you.


I loafe and invite my soul,

I lean and loafe at my ease observing a spear of summer grass.


My tongue, every atom of my blood, form’d from this soil, this air,

Born here of parents born here from parents the same, and their parents the same,

I, now thirty-seven years old in perfect health begin,

Hoping to cease not till death.


干货君赏析


除了明显感觉到的“对自我歌颂”这个主题外,似乎第一节表明了“你我同宗”这样的思想,即我们都一样,感受可能会相同,都有歌颂自我的权力。“不死”或“永生”的话题也得以提及,在第6节探讨草叶时得以重申。


2

The smoke of my own breath,

Echoes, ripples, buzz’d whispers, love-root, silk-thread, crotch and vine,

My respiration and inspiration, the beating of my heart, the passing of blood and air through my lungs,

The sniff of green leaves and dry leaves, and of the shore and dark-color’d sea-rocks, and of hay in the barn,

The sound of the belch’d words of my voice loos’d to the eddies of the wind,


Stop this day and night with me and you shall possess the origin of all poems,

You shall possess the good of the earth and sun, (there are millions of suns left,)

You shall no longer take things at second or third hand, nor look through the eyes of the dead, nor feed on the spectres in books,

You shall not look through my eyes either, nor take things from me,

You shall listen to all sides and filter them from your self.

干货君赏析


用大段碎片化的意象堆叠,着重表现自我的经历。之后表明每个人都有属于自己的体会,不要通过别人的经历说话。是对第一小节individualism的侧面补充。


5

I mind how once we lay such a transparent summer morning,

How you settled your head athwart my hips and gently turn’d over upon me,

And parted the shirt from my bosom-bone, and plunged your tongue to my bare-stript heart,

And reach’d till you felt my beard, and reach’d till you held my feet.

干货君赏析


有争议的地方来了:很多人表示这一节含有同性恋暗示。我个人觉得也有可能是表达一种灵与肉的分离与结合,即肉体是我,灵魂是另一个我。不论怎样解释,这一节语言都较为表达了“性”(当时大背景下,众人是比较保守的)。所以,敢于公开场合谈“性”,也是惠特曼的一大特征


6

A child said What is the grass? fetching it to me with full hands;

How could I answer the child? I do not know what it is any more than he.

I guess it must be the flag of my disposition, out of hopeful green stuff woven.

Or I guess the grass is itself a child, the produced babe of the vegetation.

Or I guess it is a uniform hieroglyphic,

And it means, Sprouting alike in broad zones and narrow zones,

Growing among black folks as among white,

Kanuck, Tuckahoe, Congressman, Cuff, I give them the same, I receive them the same.


O I perceive after all so many uttering tongues,

And I perceive they do not come from the roofs of mouths for nothing.

I wish I could translate the hints about the dead young men and women,

And the hints about old men and mothers, and the offspring taken soon out of their laps.


What do you think has become of the young and old men?

And what do you think has become of the women and children?

They are alive and well somewhere,

The smallest sprout shows there is really no death,

And if ever there was it led forward life, and does not wait at the end to arrest it,

And ceas’d the moment life appear’d.

All goes onward and outward, nothing collapses,

And to die is different from what any one supposed, and luckier.



干货君赏析



我个人最喜欢第6节,刻画了诗人如何通过一个孩童手中的草看到了整个世界。比如种族的和谐(但之前我好像看到资料说,惠特曼在种族问题上是矛盾的,后期有了种族歧视。尚需查证哈),男女老少,以及生死。同时可以注意在后几节,惠特曼表明了自己对女性的尊重及赞扬(当时文人多重男权,女性并无过多话语权)。



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